Transformer Loss Standards
Unlike many countries in the world, Europe's energy efficiency Distribution transformers. The two main documents defining losses in transformers are: European Standard EN 50464-1, which replaces the harmonized HD428 document for oil-cooled transformers, and dry-type transformers (or their various country equivalents, eg DIN, etc.) Data for these norms are given in the Appendix.
Despite the fact that it is not mandatory by European standards, there are some procurement procedures (electricity distribution companies' internal standards) that are very demanding in the Benelux, Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Scandinavia.
Most of the electricity distribution companies in these countries buy transformers in C 1 [C min minus 30%] (HD 428) or AoBk (new 50464) standards. ENDESA in Spain purchased HD 428 CC' for 400 kVA units. EdF has introduced a specific purchasing policy stating that there is no head loss between Co and Eo and no head loss between Dk and Bk.
Mixture of losses for low no-load losses for small ratings and low load losses for higher ratings. Also recently the tolerance of losses has changed. More often, utilities reduce the damage tolerance to 0% instead of, say, 15%.
Efficiency standards outside of EuropeElectrical efficiency is expressed in terms of maximum values for a given load level or no-load and no-load loss. Some examples are below. Australia has "recalculated" the American standard of 60 Hz efficiency NEMA TP-1, which was never federally mandated in the USA - to 50 Hz, and also linearly interpolated the efficiency of ratings different from those used in the USA. New Zealand follows Australian regulations on distribution transformers as policy.
In China, the standards are raised regularlySince 1996, the S7 and then the S9 replaced the S1;
The S11 will soon be replaced by the S13, which is expected to set lower loss levels.
The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) classifies distribution transformers in the range of 25 to 200 kVA in 5 categories from 1 Star (high loss) to 5 Star (low loss). 5 Stars represent world class performance. 3 Stars is recommended as the minimum efficiency standard and is widely followed by utilities. Japan has a different distribution typeThe system is much closer to the consumer with the final stage of voltage conversion. Most of the units are pole mounted single phase transformers. The driver that set the minimum efficiency standards was the Kyoto commitment.
Transformers, along with 17 other categories of electrical equipment, must meet their minimum efficiency. In transformers, efficiency is defined at 40% load. In 2003, target average productivity for 2006 (petroleum) or 2007 (dry type) was determined based on the best products on the market.